In addition, their procedures were far from being traditional and even from ethical and moral codes, since the discovery of the smallpox vaccine in 1796 was possible, since it injected pus from sick cows into the blood of a child to see if it was, it restored the immune system. And thanks to this, we now have vaccines. Sigmund Freud was an Austrian doctor specializing in neurology and considered not only as the father of psychoanalysis, but as one of the most important intellectual figures of the 20th century. It changed the world of psychology and psychiatry forever by revealing to the world that the unconscious played a very important role in the development of our personality and even in pathologies.
Avicenna made countless contributions to philosophy, astronomy, mathematics, geology, theology, psychology and, obviously, to Medicine. Of the 450 works he wrote, about 40 are medical in nature and contributed greatly to the progress of this discipline around the world. John Snow was an English doctor considered to be the father of modern epidemiology. He went down in history when he discovered that the cholera outbreaks that appeared in London in 1854 were due to the contamination of the city's water with faecal matter.
In this sense, John Snow was the one who laid the foundations for the promotion of public health. Charles R. Drew by Darwinek - Wikimedia Commons. Edward Jenner from Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 — Wikimedia Commons It is in this context that most governments have established many health institutes and health centers in their countries.
This shows that health is a priority and that people should not compromise their health. Here is the list of the 10 most famous doctors in the world. During its time, smallpox was responsible for the death of approximately 20% of the population. Jenner's smallpox vaccination method grew in popularity and eventually replaced variolation, which had been the norm before its manifestation.
Jenner and his work are said to have “saved more lives than the work of any other human being.”. In 1979, the World Health Organization stated that smallpox had been eradicated from the world. Drew de Darwinek — Wikimedia commons Drew was an African-American surgeon and researcher who organized the first large scale blood bank in the United States. He was dubbed the “Father of the Blood Bank”.
Charles Drew improved the blood collection process, ensuring that there was a centralized place where donors could go to donate. He is credited with developing the concept of a procedure that would extend the lives of children born with the Tetralogy of Fallot. This is a birth defect that affects normal blood flow through the heart and to the rest of the body. Helen's concept was applied in practice as a procedure known as the Blalock-Thomas-Taussig derivation.
This procedure successfully prolongs the survival of children born with tetralogy of Fallot, one of the main causes of blue baby syndrome. Taussig also worked to promote the combined use of x-rays and fluoroscopy to monitor changes in the heart and lungs of infants in a less invasive way. In 1960, Dr. Taussig became the first female president of the American College of Cardiology.
Georges Mathé — Wikimedia Commons In November 1958, he performed the first successful allogeneic bone marrow transplant performed on unrelated donors. Several Yugoslav physicists were exposed to radiation during a nuclear accident. Mathé infused them with bone marrow from a donor and saved all but one from radiation poisoning. Mathé cured a leukemia patient with a bone marrow transplant.
He later showed that stem cells could not only cure damage caused by radiation, but also fight cancer. The Apgar score is now used around the world to assess a newborn's heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex response and color on a 0- to 2-point scale for a combined total score immediately after birth. Sir Alexander Fleming de Calibuono in English Wikibooks — Wikimedia Commons Fleming had a special interest in the natural bactericidal characteristics of antiseptics and blood. In 1921, he discovered the bacteriolytic substance lysozyme in tissues and secretions.
In 1928, while studying the flu virus, he accidentally discovered penicillin. In 1893, Daniel Williams performed the first successful heart surgery. He also performed the first documented and successful pericardial surgery in the United States to repair a wound. He worked to create more hospitals that would admit African-Americans.
In 1895 he co-founded the National Medical Association of African-American doctors. Then, in 1913, he became a founding member and the only African-American physician of the American College of Surgeons. Blackwell's inaugural thesis on typhoid fever, published in 1849 in the Buffalo Medical Journal shortly after graduation, was the first medical article published by a student from the United States. In 1953, DeBakey performed the first successful carotid endarterectomy, thus establishing the field of stroke surgery.
DeBakey developed the components that would become part of the first cardiopulmonary machine. In the 1950s, he developed a plastic tube for vascular repair, which was used to prevent stroke recurrence, kidney failure, and vascular restoration in the extremities. Jane Cooke Wright, from the National Library of Medicine — Wikimedia Commons Wright was a pioneering cancer researcher and surgeon, known for her contributions to chemotherapy. He is credited with developing the technique of using human tissue cultures instead of laboratory mice to test the effects of potential drugs on cancer cells.
She was also a pioneer in the use of the drug methotrexate to treat breast cancer and skin cancer. Methotrexate remains one of the main chemotherapy drugs used today to treat many types of cancer, and it has been the basis of all modern chemotherapy. He also developed a non-surgical method, which uses a catheter system, to deliver powerful drugs to tumors located deep in the body, such as the liver and spleen. Atul Gawande has worked as a surgeon at Brigham and Women's Hospital and has been a professor at Harvard T.H.
Chan School of Public Health and Harvard Medical School. But working in one of the best hospitals in the United States and teaching in two of the most important health programs in the United States wasn't enough; he's also the founder and president of Ariadne Labs, a center for innovation in health systems; president of Lifebox, a non-profit organization that aims to make surgery safer around the world; editor of The New Yorker magazine; and author of four New York Times best-selling books. Most recently, he co-founded CIC Health, which operates COVID-19 testing and vaccination services across the country, and was a member of Biden's COVID-19 transition advisory board. Mark Hyman is one of the country's best-known promoters of functional medicine.
Dedicated to understanding and treating the root causes of chronic diseases, Dr. Hyman serves as director of strategy and innovation at the Cleveland Clinical Center for Functional Medicine; he is also the founder and medical director of The UltraWellness Center, president of the clinical affairs board of the Institute for Functional Medicine, host of the leading health podcast, The Doctor's Pharmacy, and 14 times New York Times best-selling author. .