Metrodora, Marie Stopes and Virginia Apgar are just a few of the many women who helped advance the fields of obstetrics and gynecology. In the late 5th century BC, although its content focuses mainly on gynecological issues, such as vaginal infections and medical tests performed with a speculum, it also contains general health information on waxing and treating hemorrhoids.  After obtaining his degree in 1864, he went to Richmond, Virginia, to care for formerly enslaved people. Crumpler published A Book of Medical Discourses, in Two Parts2, in 1883, chronicling her experiences as a doctor and offering guidance on maternal and child health.
3 The 19th-century Scottish physician Sophia Jex-Blake dedicated her life to women's rights in medicine. She and six other women (Isabel Thorn, Edith Pechey, Matilda Chaplin, Helen Evans, Mary Anderson and Emily Bovell), later known as the “Edinburg Seven”, campaigned for nearly a decade for the right of women to attend medical school and practice medicine. Leading doctors and scientists supported the Seven movement, including Charles Darwin. Their efforts came to a head on November 18, 1870, which became known as the Surgeon's Hall riot.
Jex-Blake and his classmates were attacked by male students and expelled from the Royal College of Surgeons at the University of Edinburgh, where they were supposed to perform anatomy exams. Later, after several requests to medical and governmental institutions, Great Britain finally passed the Medicine Act of 1876, which allowed all medical institutions in the United Kingdom to grant licenses as doctors to qualified applicants, regardless of their gender.4 In 1878, he entered the hospital's graduate vocational school in nursing, along with 41 other students. Only 4 students, including Mahoney, completed the program in 1879, making her the first black woman in the country to obtain a professional nursing license. After her training, Mahoney decided not to practice public nursing because of her experiences with overwhelming discrimination and instead became a private nurse, practicing for 40 years.
In 1908, she co-founded the National Association of Graduate Nurses of Color and, later, became director of the Howard Orphanage Asylum for black children in Kings Park, Long Island, in New York City. She was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame in Seneca Falls, New York, in 1993.New York City removed a statue of J. Marion Sims, a 19th-century gynecologist who experimented with enslaved women, from a pedestal in Central Park.