For the ancient Babylonians, most diseases were thought to be the result of demonic forces or the punishment of the gods for past misdeeds. Doctors tended to have more in common with priests and exorcists than with modern doctors, and their cures tended to include some component of magic. For example, if a patient grinds his teeth, the healer might suspect that the ghost of a deceased relative was trying to contact him while he was sleeping. According to ancient necromantic texts, the doctor would recommend sleeping next to a human skull for a week as a way to exorcise the spirit.
To ensure that this annoying treatment worked, the tooth grinder was also told to kiss and lick the skull seven times every night. The most famous doctors heal by changing the diet and lifestyle of their patients and using other substances.